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AgentID Event Parameter Type · Monday October 18, 2010 by Crosbie Fitch

I have just defined a new Event Parameter type – AgentID.

  • TID: This has type ID 11.
  • TName: The type name is ‘AgentID’
  • ValueTypeID: The value type ID is 4 (Guid/Globally unique identifier)
  • HasSpecial: No special values
  • Observer: Manual observation
  • TDescription: The ID of a Contingency Market Agent

It will be used to observe whether and when a particular agent is subscribing to a blog (URL_RSS).

Properly Handling Subscriptions · Monday October 11, 2010 by Crosbie Fitch


Let’s recap where I am with 1p2U.com.

The point of 1p2U is to demonstrate The Contingency Market and give an example of a simple facility that enables interested members of an artist’s audience to sponsor the artist’s work, i.e. on the assumption that there’s no market for digital copies given everyone can make their own (and the 18th century privilege of copyright that’s supposed to prevent them is now the brown sludge of an ex-chocolate teapot).

It’s important to note that the key feature in models supported by the Contingency Market is that they are about exchanges, not donations, i.e. commerce rather than charity. All payment for work is based on this contingent exchange: “If you do the work you get paid, if you don’t you don’t”. Moreover, you can only sell your work to those who value it enough to want to pay you to do it.

The exchange of work or goods is what happens in a free market, not manufacturers being able charge someone for the value they extract from a product. If a weaver sees someone other than the purchaser of their basket borrowing it (even to make a copy), they have no right to demand payment from them for the value they infer has been obtained. The vendor may well wish to maximise the value to them of what they accept in exchange for their work, but that’s a marketing problem. It’s the vendor’s task to find the set of customers who value their work the most, to maximise the sale price. Just because they may fail to obtain a theoretical maximum, that’s no reason to be granted a monopoly so similar works can be sold over and over again (given no-one else is at liberty to make copies more cheaply). A state granted monopoly is lucrative, but it’s very expensive to the rest of society. Aside from a monopoly inflated price it has an extreme hidden cost, albeit one shared by all.

Thus 1p2U’s proposition is “If you have umpteen readers willing to sponsor your intellectual work at a penny per article, then 1p2U can facilitate that bargain and exchange”. But, obviously, once the intellectual work is published, and copyable by all at zero cost, then it shouldn’t be, and can’t be, sold again (though some will insist it can be, monopoly or not).

How things work now

So, how does 1p2U work via The Contingency Market at the moment?

The blogger registers their blog’s RSS feed, and this is recorded as the following hierarchical event:

There are child events to the feed, e.g. that the feed’s description Is Known (has a value).

The key child events concern the publication of each feed item, e.g. that an item is published after a certain date (item>4/10/10 11:10am, which has a child event that its guid Is Known), and the event of that specific item (item=“tag:www.digitalproductions.co.uk,2010-10-04:3cda7fd03d8b973d9485efa5190df763/4529ab446a2822060dafe306865788e9” which also has its own child events, e.g. pubDate Is Known).

Thus a subscription is a deal based upon a matched pair of offers: the blogger’s offer to publish their blog (the contingency that the feed is published) and a subscriber’s offer to pay a penny (contingent upon the event an item is published after a certain date).


However, that’s just the sponsorship for the next article. A subscription is also a continuously renewed sponsorship, and moderating the renewal process is the next significant piece of coding I have to do.

I shall create a new event which is that there is a specific subscriber to the feed:

Subscriber exists/Agent is subscribing

  • ID:Subscriber=AgentID: Subscriber with this ID is observed to be subscribing

I’ll then create two child events:

Subscription renewal rate

  • N:Rate=Unknown/0: If renewing, resubscribe to next article
  • N:Rate>0: If renewing, resubscribe to next article published after ‘Rate’ seconds

Subscription renewal limit

  • N:Limit=Unknown: Unlimited – renew automatically
  • N:Limit>0: Do not renew if ‘Limit’ is exceeded by number of articles published since start of last subscription period (last observed to be subscribing)

These two events should give 1p2U subscribers sufficient control, e.g. to start and stop subscribing, to limit their sponsorship to a particular publication rate, and to cap the amount payable. These values can of course be adjusted as often as the subscriber wishes, though it is expected that they will be changed rarely. I will probably set the default Rate at 60 second renewal and Limit at 2,000.

I may also create another event one day to set the subscription payment, e.g.

Subscription payment

  • C:Payment=Unknown: Offer 1p in exchange for publication of the next article
  • C:Payment>=0: Offer ‘Payment’ in exchange for publication of the next article

James Wakefield said 1273 days ago :

1p2U is a really good idea, and I wish you all the best with your endevours. I would however like you to take in to consideration the “pay per copy problem” which current copyright law also contains. This is that avant guard — the artists that inspire the artists; the experimenters and those that are simply before their time, will continue to not be paid under a pay per subscription system, with only the ones that distill the ideas into more popular digestible forms being the beneficiaries, even if they only manage to make one important, nay, popular work. Further more, this continues, albeit in a much friendlier form, the idea of ownership of information for the consumer, and possibly limits the amount of consumption of culture as people will continue to believe that it is something that you have to, or should, pay for if you want to consume it.

I have been thinking much about this problem, just like yourself, and have come up with a little system that if you wouldn’t mind I could explain to you.

A cultural production society could be created where members pay to receive nothing but a membership card, and pay the appropriate price for their circumstance. However, I imagine special events will be held where only members are invited, discounts on various items will be given to members by businesses that want to encourage arts and journalism. If a creator wants to withdraw the money that has accrued to them then they will also have to become a member. They should however still accrue money in an account even if they are not members.

Many different ways of distribution could be formulated. It is most important for an absolute libertarian approach be established for what type of work is entitled to receive funds, for the risk of censorship is far greater then the risk of rewarding “undesirable” content or even having to decide what is undesirable. I suspect things like smart phones could periodically sample the environment of the user (and deliberately uploaded by that user after he or she has gone through and removed the things he or she doesn’t like or didn’t actually want to consume). Ideally such a system would be run by Google who already have immense amounts of relevant data. Systems could be established to ensure new artists and writers are paid more, and a cap is placed on how much a creator can receive for each item.

My system while feeling somewhat like a charity, rewards creators whose products are consumed. The concrete item of the membership card gives a benefit to consumers. Derivative works would be recognised with all contributors of the work being rewarded. Ownership is not involved — culture stays in society with potential benefit of creators actually encouraging people to create derivatives. The membership cards could be given as gifts. I would also like each member being able to choose how, or at least part of, their contributions are distributed. I’m not sure what is an appropriate price point for membership would be.

I intend on creating a blog soon, I hope to work together with fellow like minded copyright abolitionists.

Crosbie Fitch said 1273 days ago :

Thanks James.

I don’t see any “pay per copy problem” except that people are indoctrinated by copyright to believe that the author has some right to be paid each time someone copies or performs their work.

People should be paid for their work, not for someone else’s work in copying it, performing it, or selecting it. When a DJ selects a record to play he does some work, which he is paid for, but that work has nothing to do with the work involved in producing the record, or the copy of it. Thus there’s no reason why any of the DJ’s wages should be deducted and diverted to the record label. If the DJ’s audience likes the music they hear there’s nothing stopping them seeking out the musicians to commission them to produce more.

So, it should be clear that if you pay a blogger a penny for each article, who does nothing more than republish other bloggers’ articles, you are paying that penny because you believe the work they do in selecting articles is worth a penny in exchange. So, it’s up to you to decide whose work you want to commission. Do you want to sponsor a writer, a journalist, a reviewer, or a collator? You pay people for the work you want them to do, not for the work others have done (and have been paid by others to do).

The idea of consuming intellectual work is quite unnatural and spawned entirely by copyright. It’s certainly a lucrative illusion to instil in one’s customers, that each time they obtain value from your work they should pay you for it, but this is anathema to the natural laws of free market exchange. Either you rent an object or you purchase it. In both cases you pay the market price roughly equivalent to the expected cumulative value of temporary or permanent possession and use. With respect to intellectual work, unlike fuel or food it cannot be consumed, but if you can fool someone into believing it can be, well, you can fool them into paying for their ‘consumption’. Though such trickery is not ethical.

There have been some ideas suggested where such gullible people can salve their guilt (at having consumed intellectual work without reimbursing the worker), by repaying them after the event.

As for ‘entitlement’, there is no entitlement or right to compensation for doing work. Again, it’s lucrative if you can persuade people of this, but it’s not natural. In a free market, you exchange your services to whoever wants them if you can both agree to an equitable exchange. You don’t chalk the Mona Lisa on a paving slab and then mug passers by for the price you’ve set for your work – whether they like it or not – on the basis of entitlement, however hard you’ve worked. Your art is a promotion of your talents. You invite sponsorship/patronage from anyone who would see you continue, to produce further work.

Others, and perhaps you too, disagree with me on the business of intellectual work being about exchange. Some say that paying artists is all about conscientiously rewarding them for what they’ve done, even that people should be obliged to do so. Or, alternatively, that it's about paying for 'consumption' - notional value received. Here are some links to the reward/recompense oriented:

If the system you have in mind is about rewarding creators whose products are consumed then I suspect you may have more affinity with these three, than with the principle of equitable exchange that I espouse.

Either way, at least we both recognise that copyright has finally come to an end in all but repeal – and presumably agree that it should have been abolished along with slavery. The task that remains is to facilitate commerce in intellectual work without the privilege of a state granted monopoly. To make an ethical incentive: money for art, liberty for people.

RSS feeds now ingested by Contingency Market · Wednesday October 21, 2009 by Crosbie Fitch

I had previously assumed that Contingency Market clients would digest and archive RSS feeds themselves given an underlying assumption that the CM would be RSS agnostic. Thus the CM client (such as 1p2U) would take it upon themselves to register all the appropriate RSS events.

However, being pragmatic about it, the CM is ideally placed to take upon the burden of monitoring RSS feeds itself, leaving clients with only a need to register the feed as an event (an automatically observed one). That way the client can then interrogate the CM for information concerning the history of that feed, e.g. all items published.

I’ve now completed the modifications to the CM.

What I’ve now got to do is remove 1p2U’s rather iffy code that digests the RSS feed and replace it with code that retrieves equivalent information concerning the RSS feed from the CM instead.

Once I’ve done that, there should no longer be gaps in articles, nor cases where subscribers are listed more than once for the same feed.

A couple of days perhaps? :-}

Hacking Some Significant Changes · Friday October 16, 2009 by Crosbie Fitch

I’ve been changing the representation of 1p2U subscriptions in terms of Contingency Market events, and still have some way to go. So 1p2U’s detailing of subscribers and articles published is not particularly accurate at the moment (very frustrating).

I’m amused to be hoist by my own petard, as in attempting to hack a direct database change (of URL events to URL_RSS events) I came across a security mechanism I’d long ago introduced to thwart such hacks. Once a contingency has been defined, it’s impossible to change it (because of the use of secure hashes). So, I’m going to have to support both the old contingencies and the new ones until the old ones have been replicated, and can eventually be discarded.

Scott Carpenter said 1644 days ago :

Just let me know when I can write my promotional post. :-)

Crosbie Fitch said 1644 days ago :

I was going to e-mail you Scott. I don’t think I’m going to get 1p2U ready for a new influx today. :-(

I’ve just had a surprise 4 day holiday that’s thrown my time-scales out a bit.

Unfortunately things are going to remain a little haywire until I can switch over to a far more robust system. And then I can get on with improving usability and features.

Scott Carpenter said 1644 days ago :

No problem — I’m looking forward to trying it out more, but understand things take time. In the meantime I’m working on content that people might want to pay for.

Crosbie Fitch said 1644 days ago :

Yup, it takes time, as does other work I have to do in parallel – I had to solve someone’s business critical network failure on Weds & Thursday. I’m banking on 1p2U becoming ever more business critical for us, so I look forward to your work, as you no doubt look forward to mine. :)

Caching Up · Thursday September 17, 2009 by Crosbie Fitch

I have been intending for the Contingency Market API to operate efficiently remotely as well as locally, hence its current, rather sluggish setup my end to replicate such a use.

However, in wishing to progress a little more quickly with 1p2U, I think I’ll leave the implementation of an object cache for the CM API until a little later (given I doubt there are any API users apart from myself at the mo).

Incidentally, the CM back-end database has been designed from the outset to be bidirectionally replicatable. So that provides an alternative to achieving a similar result via the API keyhole.

As far as my immediate next steps are concerned I’m going to try out an alternative API cache, then ameliorate my deliberate server-side bottleneck, and finally migrate data processing from the page retrieval process to a background one. Page caching is another option, but I’m leaving that until last.

So, 1p2U will not change visually/functionally for a few days, despite a long list of things needing to be done.

1p2U Alpha · Wednesday September 09, 2009 by Crosbie Fitch

The 1p2U project (to let a reader pay a blogger a penny to write another article) has now entered the alpha testing phase, i.e. where although it is incomplete I welcome the more intrepid early adopter to kick its tyres and kindly act as a guinea pig so that more bugs are revealed as it becomes used.

Incidentally, I will now be blogging a little more about 1p2U, so if you’re only interested in my blog articles about ‘Natural IP’ (Intellectual property from a natural rights perspective) then there is now a dedicated Natural IP RSS feed, i.e. http://www.digitalproductions.co.uk/index.php?rss=1&section=Natural-IP. This can be found on the front page of the DP site by some RSS feed readers.

Conversely, there is also a dedicated Projects RSS feed: http://www.digitalproductions.co.uk/index.php?rss=1&section=Projects.

Micropayment vs Microcharging · Monday March 30, 2009 by Crosbie Fitch

On the ProjectVRM list I recently suggested a few principles that might make an online revenue mechanism easy:

  1. Publish it – and they will come.
  2. If people think it’s worth paying for, let them pay. If they don’t, improve the product.
  3. Make the decision to pay easy – a token amount – a penny.
  4. Make the intention to pay easy – a click of a button – the actual payment invariably isn’t (save it up for a rainy day).
  5. Payment is voluntary, but not a donation – make the deal clear – value for money.
  6. Your customers are not your enemy, but your ambassadors.

In a response to this, Doc Searls both acknowledged these as describing PayChoice in a nutshell, and suggested the term ‘microaccounting’ might best describe the process of collecting such microtransactions into significantly sized payments.

I think microaccounting is a good term for such a process, but it doesn’t quite pin down the critical aspect.

I have been thinking that this principle of ‘decision/intention to pay’ is actually ‘micropayment’, and the misadventure that people had attempted in the past was better termed ‘microcharging’ (as in “Download/read this for $0.01”).

There are other terms too, i.e. micropledging, micropatronage, microcontracting, etc.

However, as can be observed, the obvious way to reduce the transaction cost of micropayments is to collect them and settle the bill a thousand micropayments later (hence microaccounting). A less obvious, more sophisticated method is demonstrated by PepperCoin (probabalistic distribution of $1 among a thousand payments). As PepperCoin probably discovered, the problem isn’t so much having a mechanism for handling micropayments, but having an application (and especially realising why microcharging can’t apply to published work).

I thus wholeheartedly agree with Clay Shirky on the case against micropayments and even small payments if what is really meant is microcharging or simply charging, but this subtle terminological confusion has discredited what micropayment should have been about, i.e. enabling people who WANT to pay a small amount to do so extremely easily (and that’s ‘pay’ rather than ‘be charged’).

Moreover, and this is what I think people are still missing (cf Kachingle), it’s ‘wanting to micropay’ not ‘wanting to be microcharged’ – a dominant, not a submissive act. Moreover, it’s ‘wanting to pay for work to be produced’, not ‘wanting to be microcharged for consuming content already produced’. The latter still reveals contamination by the copyright mentality, that if one benefits from or consumes another’s art one becomes indebted (a disturbingly pervasive mindset that has polluted contemporary culture).

The micropayment must be captured as close as is possible to the decision to pay, because that is precisely the moment at which the payer has sunk the cost of the decision and can absorb the minute friction of executing that decision in the form of a button click. What Shirky explains is that we cannot impose the cost of a decision upon members of an audience (microcharging). However, as I contend, this does not mean that a member of the audience will not wish to make such a decision of their own volition (micropayment).

Even so, we must remain vigilant that we don’t slip back into the misadventure of inviting people to submit themselves to microcharging, e.g. “Give us your credit card and we’ll charge you a penny per page view for consuming our premium content”. That touches on another critical aspect – are you paying for the production of the art, a copy of it, or its use?

Payment: “This is good. I want more. Heck, I’ll pay you to produce more. Where do I click?”

Charging: “I feel indebted to you each time I consume your work. Please keep track of my consumption and bill me later.”

The problem with ‘microaccounting’ is that it applies to both, i.e. the collection of micropayments or microcharges for a later lump payment. It doesn’t shed light on payment vs charge.

Anyway, the term is a minor concern. When audiences become enabled in paying artists, and then do so in large numbers, a term will arise pretty sharpish (I like micropatronage). I certainly can’t see a day when people will say “Please permit these collection societies to withdraw funds from my bank account according to my use of their members’ copyrighted works”. Unfortunately, while people still persist in believing that art is consumed and that consumers must pay for what they consume, there will be a movement that suggests that people should indeed submit themselves to be charged, and failing that, taxed – there can be no volition about it – you consume, you pay.

With the imminent demise of copyright we thus see ourselves at a crossroads: should there be a free market in art (audiences deciding who to patronise and how much), or should art be funded by taxation (appraised and costed centrally)?

Francis Davey said 1737 days ago :

Micropatronage works best for me. I think partly because it expresses the relationship well: patronage conjures in the mind historically wealthy donors funding the creation of art. It carries with it no doubt that the person who is paying is doing so not only voluntarily but entirely freely. Also I suspect the payment v charging dichotomy will be hard for people to remember of understand without further explanation.

Just a thought anyway.

Your main thesis is right though I think.

Beginnings of an RSS Widget form · Friday May 23, 2008 by Crosbie Fitch

You can see the beginnings of a form for blog authors to create a 1p2U.com subscription widget here

I had to go through umpteen XML/RSS PHP libraries before I could find moderately stable functionality for the following:

  1. Find RSS feeds on a web page
  2. Validate an RSS feed
  3. Interpret an RSS feed

To find feeds on a page I found Find_RSS_Links by Ivan Melgrati at MT-Soft (apparently based on RSS auto-discovery by Keith Devens).

To validate an RSS feed I used the Pear PHP library class XML_RSS and to interpret it I used XML_Feed_Parser.

The Pear libraries are a bit cumbersome for a MediaWiki extension, so I’ll drop those and put the equivalent RSS functionality into the Contingency Market instead.

I think I’ll be dividing contingent events into three distinct trees: normal, system, automatic.

  • Normal – Events created and administered via the Contingency Market API.
  • System – Events internal to the Contingency Market and intrinsically authoritative.
  • Automatic – Special events relating to external online activity (continuously monitored).

RSS feeds will be created as automatic events. The frequency of their monitoring may increase if any dependent contingencies exist.

Authentication Hiatus · Tuesday January 29, 2008 by Crosbie Fitch

I’ve now done the bulk of work hooking in the Contingency Market’s authentication system into MediaWiki.

Now when creating an account at 1p2U.com, one is creating a Contingency Market Agent account with the MediaWiki account created as byproduct.

I’ll resume work on this in a couple of week’s time.

1p2U - Mediawiki · Tuesday January 22, 2008 by Crosbie Fitch

To make things a little more transparent I think I’ll have a go at using Mediawiki as the CMS for 1p2U.com. Apologies for my design, but it may encourage others to produce far superior Mediawiki skins.

This means everything will be written as a plug-in to Mediawiki.

The first thing to do is to hook Mediawiki’s authentication mechanism into the Contingency Market.

This could be hairy.




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